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Unraveling Dysgraphia in Younger Children: The Elusive Diagnosis


dictionary page defining dysgraphia and dyslexia

When it comes to learning difficulties in children, dysgraphia often flies under the radar, overshadowed by its more well-known counterparts like dyslexia or ADHD. Yet, dysgraphia can be just as impactful, if not more so, on a child's academic and emotional development. This learning disability primarily affects a child's writing abilities, making it challenging to express their thoughts on paper. However, diagnosing dysgraphia in younger children can be a daunting task. Let's delve into what dysgraphia looks like in younger children and explore the reasons behind its elusive diagnosis.


What is Dysgraphia?

Dysgraphia is a specific learning disability that affects a child's ability to write legibly and coherently. It goes beyond simple handwriting difficulties; it involves problems with spelling, organizing thoughts on paper, and forming letters or words. Dysgraphia can be either developmental or acquired, with the former being present from an early age.


There are different types or "totes" of dysgraphia, each with its unique characteristics. These totes or types help professionals and educators better understand and address the specific challenges individuals with dysgraphia face.

infographic explain the main types of dysgraphia

Here are the five main types of dysgraphia:

1. Dyslexic Dysgraphia:

- Characteristics: People with dyslexic dysgraphia have difficulty with spelling and word recognition. Their writing may include letter reversals, substitutions, and phonetic spelling errors.

- Underlying Issue: This type of dysgraphia is often associated with dyslexia, a reading disorder, and is linked to difficulties in translating sounds to written language.

2. Motor Dysgraphia (Dyspraxic Dysgraphia):

- Characteristics: Motor dysgraphia is characterized by poor fine motor skills. Individuals may struggle with letter formation, spacing, and overall legibility. Writing may appear messy or inconsistent.

- Underlying Issue: This type is related to motor coordination difficulties, making it challenging to control the physical act of writing.

3. Spatial Dysgraphia:

- Characteristics: People with spatial dysgraphia have difficulty with spatial awareness and organization on the page. They may experience issues with alignment, sizing, and spatial orientation of letters and words.

- Underlying Issue: This type is associated with difficulties in understanding and managing the spatial aspects of writing.

4. Phonological Dysgraphia:

- Characteristics: Individuals with phonological dysgraphia have difficulty spelling words phonetically. They may struggle to translate the sounds they hear into written symbols. Their writing may contain spelling errors that reflect their challenges in phoneme-to-grapheme conversion, such as inconsistent vowel and consonant representations. Spelling errors may include phonetic substitutions and omissions of sounds in words.

- Underlying Issues: Phonological dysgraphia is often associated with underlying difficulties in phonological awareness, which is the ability to recognize and manipulate the sounds of language. This type of dysgraphia may also be linked to difficulties in the phonological loop, a component of working memory responsible for holding and manipulating auditory information. The primary issue lies in the phonological processing of language, affecting the ability to accurately represent the sounds of words in written form.

5. Lexical Dysgraphia:

- Characteristics: People with lexical dysgraphia have difficulty spelling irregular or "exception" words that do not follow typical phonetic spelling rules. They can often spell regular words (those that can be sounded out phonetically) correctly but struggle with irregular words. This type of dysgraphia may result in errors such as phonetic spelling of irregular words.

- Underlying Issues: Lexical dysgraphia is linked to difficulties in the mental lexicon, which is the mental store of words and their meanings. Individuals with this type of dysgraphia may have trouble accessing and retrieving the correct spelling of irregular words from their mental lexicon. The underlying issue primarily involves the lexical or word-specific knowledge of spelling, as opposed to the phonological aspects of language.

2 additional subsets of dysgraphia include:

6. Linguistic Dysgraphia (Agrammatic Dysgraphia):

- Characteristics: Linguistic dysgraphia is characterized by difficulties in organizing and structuring written language. Individuals may struggle with grammar, punctuation, and sentence structure.

- Underlying Issue: This type is linked to difficulties in language processing and syntax, impacting the ability to convey thoughts clearly in writing.

7. Visual Dysgraphia (Perceptual Dysgraphia):

- Characteristics: Visual dysgraphia involves issues with visual perception, making it challenging to reproduce letters and words accurately. It can result in letter reversals, mirror writing, and poor visual discrimination.

- Underlying Issue: This type is associated with visual processing difficulties, affecting the ability to recognize and reproduce visual information accurately.


It's worth noting that some individuals with dysgraphia may exhibit a combination of these types, and the severity of dysgraphia can vary from person to person. Proper assessment by a qualified professional, such as a speech-language pathologist or an educational psychologist, is essential to identify the specific type and challenges associated with dysgraphia in an individual. This assessment allows for the development of targeted interventions and strategies to support the individual's writing skills.


What Dysgraphia Looks Like in Younger Children

Some of the symptoms of dysgraphia include:

1. Illegible Handwriting: One of the most apparent signs of dysgraphia is extremely messy or illegible handwriting. Younger children with dysgraphia may struggle to form letters and words neatly, making their written work hard to decipher.

2. Inconsistent Letter Formation: Children with dysgraphia often have inconsistent letter sizes and spacing. They might mix upper and lower case letters inappropriately, even when they know the rules.

3. Difficulty with Fine Motor Skills: Dysgraphia can be associated with poor fine motor skills, making tasks like holding a pencil or buttoning a shirt challenging.

4. Slow Writing Speed: Children with dysgraphia may write more slowly than their peers, as they struggle to form letters and words accurately.

5. Frustration and Anxiety: As these difficulties become more evident, younger children with dysgraphia may become frustrated, anxious, or even avoid writing tasks altogether.


table describing dysgraphia symptoms in children

Why Dysgraphia is Hard to Diagnose in Younger Children

There are several reasons as to why dysgraphia is difficult to diagnose in children of a younger age. Some of these reasons include: 1. Developmental Variation: Young children naturally have varied writing skills as they develop. It can be challenging to distinguish between age-appropriate variability and a more significant issue like dysgraphia.

2. Overlap with Other Conditions: Dysgraphia often coexists with other learning disabilities such as dyslexia or ADHD. This overlap can make it challenging to pinpoint dysgraphia as the primary issue.

3. Limited Awareness: Dysgraphia is relatively less known compared to other learning disabilities, leading to a lack of awareness among educators and parents. This can result in delayed recognition and intervention.

4. Maturity Level: A child's cognitive and motor skills develop at different rates. What appears to be dysgraphia in a younger child may resolve with time and maturity, making diagnosis more complex.


The Importance of Early Intervention

While diagnosing dysgraphia in younger children can be challenging, early intervention is crucial. If you suspect dysgraphia in your child, consult with educators and specialists who can conduct assessments and provide tailored support. Occupational therapy, assistive technology, and specialized instruction can make a significant difference in helping children with dysgraphia develop the skills needed for academic success.


Diagnosing Dysgraphia

Diagnosing dysgraphia involves a comprehensive assessment by a qualified professional. Various methods and tools are used to determine if a person has dysgraphia, including:

1. Observation: Teachers and specialists often observe the child's writing abilities in different contexts, noting issues with handwriting, spacing, and letter formation.

2. Medical and Developmental History: Gathering information about the child's medical history, developmental milestones, and family history of learning disabilities can provide valuable insights.

3. Standardized Writing Tests: These tests assess various aspects of writing, such as letter formation, spelling, sentence structure, and written expression. Examples include the Test of Written Language (TOWL) and the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test (WIAT).

4. Fine Motor Skills Assessment: Evaluating a child's fine motor skills, including activities like drawing, cutting, and buttoning, can help identify any underlying motor difficulties.

5. Handwriting Samples: Collecting handwriting samples over time can reveal patterns of inconsistency and illegibility, which are common in dysgraphia.

6. Cognitive Testing: Assessments of cognitive abilities, including memory, processing speed, and executive functions, can help identify any related learning difficulties.

7. Interviews: Speaking with the child, parents, and teachers to understand the child's experiences, challenges, and coping strategies can provide additional insights.

8. Occupational Therapy Evaluation: Occupational therapists can assess a child's sensory and motor skills related to writing and suggest appropriate interventions.

9. Neuropsychological Evaluation: In more complex cases, a neuropsychological evaluation can help identify underlying brain-based issues that may be contributing to dysgraphia.

10. Screening Tools: Some schools and healthcare providers use screening tools to identify students at risk of dysgraphia. However, these are typically preliminary and not diagnostic.


It's important to note that dysgraphia is often diagnosed as part of a comprehensive assessment that considers the child's overall development and functioning. A multi-disciplinary approach involving educators, psychologists, occupational therapists, and other specialists is often employed to provide a complete picture of the child's needs and to create an individualized intervention plan.


In conclusion, dysgraphia in younger children may be elusive, but it is not insurmountable. By recognizing the signs, seeking professional guidance, and offering the necessary support and accommodations, we can help children with dysgraphia overcome the challenges they face in expressing themselves through writing. Remember, every child has a unique journey, and with the right resources, they can thrive and reach their full potential.

dysgraphia infographic with various rep accommodations and other important tools

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